Now, having realized the nature of time and what its function in human mind is, let’s ponder on and examine the distances involved through time and space in this Universe we live in.
How big is the Universe? What is it? If the Universe has a limited space in terms of distance, then what is the Universe contained in?
It is yet unclear as to what exactly this huge blackness filled with exotic stellar objects and boundaries unseen that our Solar System floats in is. It is thought to be endless, having a deductable beginning, that we are able to partially observe with telescopes and where our sight cannot reach mathematics fill the gap.
So, we live in an endless Universe that began at an inexplicable moment coined “Big Bang” (for glamorousity), that is also expanding in volume as certain observations and calculations show.
The reasons that caused the birth of the Universe are also unclear and unreachable as well, since they lay beyond the Universe into which we exist.
There are mathematical speculations emerging about what caused the BB, notably the “Brane theory” where in an undefined beyond Universal space, huge and flat membrane-like structures made of quark elements float and occasionally bump into one another creating Universes inside their large and flat plank-like, plazma environments. These theories don’t really resolve anything and effectively get rid off the initial Quantum Singularity state that has preceded the Universe. A theory devised for certain minds own theoretical satisfaction, that is based on pure mathematics and provides little answers, posing quite a lot of questions instead. Like what is this environment that these beyond-universal Branes are contained in? What makes them ripple in the first place? The “Branes theory” seems to try to explain quantum environment with classic physics and its’ cyclic-mechanical effects. Also, there is no such a particle as “graviton” and one day science will conclude this fact, for gravity is the resulting effect of matter-dark matter interaction, kind of a mechanical effect that works in the macro and cosmic scales. All the blackness in the cosmos is perceived by us an utter emptiness. However, there is no empty space in the Universe, even Singularities aren’t “empty”. The very fabric of space is in fact this invisible energy that we perceive as “black vacuum”, this is the so called dark matter that is undetectable neither with our senses nor with our current technology. But this blackness is the very thing that gives the Universe space and volume, allowing regular matter to gather and create structures. So, as undetectable as it is it must interact with matter somehow and this is the gravity effect that large bodies exert on each other in space. The effect of large material bodies interacting with dark matter space is analogous to the effects a large body has on other bodies near by in water. Gravity appeared with the first large stellar objects and simply did not existed in the initial quantum state of the Universe when atoms were forming.
Imagination is another amazing tool that allowed dimensional-thinking in the human mind.
Nothingness and inexplicableness cause great discomfort generally in scientists’ views and flare up the wandering imagination.
Unfortunately, a lot of our words that we use to describe different groups, objects and perceptions have been burdened in time with negative meanings and loads of misunderstanding. So it is quite hard to discuss any topic without blurring it with prejudice and expose it to the risk of misunderstanding by the layered meaning of certain words and concepts you need to use.
This is again due to our limited understanding, awareness and plain ignorance. That is why it is hard to mix spirituality with science without provoking silly smiles. When we discuss the initial Singularity we can hardly avoid associating it with our primal perception of the Creator god, however it is not a human-like god with human emotions and speech. It is quite ridiculous to say that the Universe or even this that lies beyond it has religious preferences and to project our own emotions like anger, revenge, love or mercy to it. The Universe is an energetic structure that is quantum-based and very much resembles a mind-like organism on a cosmic scale. However, our current levels of understanding and awareness are too narrow to comprehend this reality, but one day God will no longer be associated with old religions, but with reality itself and the very nature of consciousness.
The Universe began from an incredibly small densely-packed with energy point, that was so small in fact that it wasn’t even a point, but was not at all.
By a mathematical method of cosmic reverse engineering that is guided by observational data and spectral analyses the unfoldment of cosmic development can be followed back through its stages and mathematically the Universe shrinks into the reality of quantum physics.
The smallest scale physics reasonably work with is the Planck scale that gives dimensions and properties to the smallest things that make up everything we know. When the Universe was micro seconds old it was unbelievably small around 0.00000000000000.......000000016 cm in diameter. And if we go even further back before that eventually we will reach the 0.00000000 cm and after the zero moment the whole minute-point Universe plunges into a negative, non-existent state.
This is the state of quantum Singularity. Because, the smaller the scale the larger the energy density and levels. If the scale dissolves into infinity then the energetic potential this infinity would hold is infinite. Energy is perceived to be carried by something, that is particles and from the point of view of our cosmic reality particles take up space, thus it is a complete paradox as to how could infinitely dense energy be held in an infinitely small space, that is actually not there at all.
This is the great mystery of Singularities and is a true cognitive and perceptual trouble for the human mind.
To a hardcore conservative scientist’s terror, we can never know what lies beyond the dimensional boundaries of this Universe, because if anything with a positive scale of existence transcends into the negative scale of non-existence it will simply vanish in an instant, as it will seize to exist the moment this quantum boundary is crossed.
So, yes there are boundaries in the cosmos after all. But these boundaries are not really reachable for humans anyway.
The Universe is an immensely huge vastness of black emptiness that is filled nevertheless with so much motion, complexity and life. Just see this amazing planet we live on – it is so small compared to the cosmic scales and yet it is thriving full of life!
As huge as the Universe is today it started its’ expansion from the smallest imaginable thing that popped-out of a completely opposite state of non-existence.
It is interesting to note, that if the Universe rewinds back into a Singularity, then it is still contained in it! Because Singularity is infinite and infiniteness is limitless, that is there is nothing beyond the infinite, because the infinite is forever and has no end. So, everything began from a state of quantum Singularity and something just before the silent birth of our womb Universe happened that triggered a dimensional collapse at a certain point in the negative space of the Singularity that we are in. This dimensional collapse created an entirely new dimension that was to layer into a multidimensional structure that our Universe is which is essentially the electromagnetic spectrum that composes everything we know.
So, the initial Singularity collapsed at a certain “point” and the new dimension folded into itself, effectively trapping some of the energetic potential of the Singularity and this enclosed amount of energy was to become all the matter, antimatter and dark matter that exists. Our Universe is a closed system and the Singularity environment it exists in doesn’t really have access to the Universe, because they are at different dimensions and energy levels. The frequency levels of the Singularity are quadrillions upon quadrillions hertz higher than the highest frequency known in the cosmic electromagnetic spectrum. Frequency levels is the reason why we cannot detect dark matter as well.
Nevertheless, the Singularity environment this Universe exists it by its very nature is the reason for quantum phenomena and uncertainty. If you look at quantum physics as a scientific realm you will be amazed by the amount of controversies that make it up. As if nothing seems to really make sense in the quantum scale of reality, while in our macro scale everything seems so orderly and elegantly driven by a cause-and-effect chain.
One thing is certain though, that reality is the strangest thing and this Universe is something that we haven’t really understood yet. This reality of this Universe that so readily bends and unveils in front of the eye of human mind that penetrates deep into the very building blocks of this quantum-cosmic structure.
Mathematical deductions based on computer models fed with observational data show that in the first second after her birth, the young Universe was extremely densely packed with opaque, hot energy and its size was as big as a grapefruit. Then, space took on a staggering expansion doubling its size every 0.02 seconds. The expansion of space is thought to be due to dark matter accumulation. And this must be the case. Since the Universe cannot be filled with “nothing”, there must be something to hold its dimensional integrity and allow for different scales to exist, otherwise its scale-based dimensional structure could not exist, since there would be no space for the larger scales to go into. Dark matter began its synthesis and accumulation alongside regular matter, but at some point its accumulation kicked in and dark matter outgrew regular matter many times, maybe something like 1 billion parts dark matter to 1 part regular matter in a progressively increasing difference gap.
However, as dark matter accumulated and created space in the Universe, regular matter also was on the move assembling into hadrons, atoms and molecules. Approximately 300, 000 million years after the “Big Bang” the first stars were born that were almost entirely composed of hydrogen, as all the heavier elements were to be created later on by nuclear fusion and supernovaes. Meteorites, for instance, are the ancient remains of all the nuclear fusion activity going on in the Universe for billions of years, since they are almost entirely composed of heavy elements like iron and others.
It is interesting that alongside the stellar evolution from atoms to stars, these first stars assembled into galaxy formations from the very beginning. It almost looks like stars were forming in galaxy formations, rather than just randomly scattered around. It is also very intriguing that data accumulation points to the existence of a massive black hole in the center of every galaxy. Quite logically, after all if stars are assembling into galaxies, that means that something is assembling them this way, a greater pull that swirls stars around its center. The very shape of galaxies point to this massive gravitational swirl that holds stars together in galaxies. That is why galaxies have tales, which give them the specific spiral shape associated with a galaxy. Also, the presence of a galactic center that exerts enormous gravitational pull is evident in the very flatness of galaxies. Have you every wondered why stars and planets are spherical, yet galaxies are flat disk-shaped? Think of the Solar System. All the planets are arranged on a plane around the Sun, and this plane crosses the Sun at the middle. No wonder it is like that, since gravity would be strongest at the middle of a massive object that rotates. Now, scientists think there must be a “graviton” particle that acts as a mediator for gravity itself that must travel somehow from the Sun to all the planets. Of course, the “graviton” model views space vacuum as a complete emptiness devoid of physical properties whatsoever. However, this is not the case. Dark matter is essentially a cosmic plasma into which all the regular-matter stellar objects float. As a massive object floats in dark matter space it interacts with it through its very mass dislocating and depressing space. Not because space is like a flat plain that depresses under the weight of massive stellar objects, but because space is dark matter itself and obviously dark matter interacts with regular matter. There is another critical factor in gravity that is rotation.
Do you think that if the Sun stops rotating it will continue to exert gravitational pull on planets? No, it will not. And planets will gradually scatter or slowly halt to a stand still, while their own rotation around their planetary axes slowly stops as well.
When a massive stellar object rotates it swirls the very space around it an this dark matter space acts as a mediator for gravity, gradually swirling larger and larger space in diameter across the stellar object thus effectively swirling around it all the other objects located in the space affected.
We could name dark matter particles “gravitons” in this sense.
The same gravitational principle applies to galaxy formation and that is why galaxies, like our Solar system, also have flat disk shape – because all the stars and matter contained in a galaxy are swirled around its gravitational center, which must be a spherical object, so that its strongest rotational momentum is at its middle, which arranges everything that swirls around it in a flat plane.
It is somewhat abstract to define a black hole or quantum singularity as “spherical” since it is infinitely small and doesn’t really take up any amount of space, however its Event horizon does and the event horizon is spherical having its strongest gravitational pull at its middle part. Dark matter is the ultimate plasma environment that will not rip off even exposed to the most insane rotational speeds. But will transmit the rotational momentum as far away from the central object until the effect gradually slows again because of dark matter itself that is acting both as a mediator for gravity and the very thing that limits its reach. All this can be simulated in a supercomputer model.
Dark matter also exerts pressure, like water does. And this is the reason for the spherical shape of stars and planets. We know that the spherical shape has the highest resistance to outside pressure, considering that everything has a reason to be in the way it is, the spherical shape of stars and planets also must have a practical reason. The pressure dark matter space exerts on all the regular-matter floating in it shapes stars and planets like spheres.
Let’s return now to our mental journey from the beginning of the Universe we embarked on.
When Hubble peers deep and faraway in the cosmic expanses it sees a chronologically layered structure of the cosmic evolution. That is, the first galaxies that were formed all share something in common – they have an active galactic nuclei or Quasar. Quasars obviously are black holes actively engulfing regular matter in an energetic inferno. While the quasar phenomenon is not observed in younger galaxies like our own, which are also much closer by to us.
It is interesting that if you look at Hubble’s photos you will notice that the centers of galaxies do shine, which means that either most of the stars in a galaxy are clumped close to its center and thus combine their collective shininess as the brightest part of a galaxy or it means that the central black hole is feeding on the galaxy constantly. However, if we consider quasars again it seems that much more matter was engulfed by galactic centers in the past than what we observe in the present layer of the Universe.
Let’s try to clear up the accumulating fog about the chronologically layered structure of the Universe. We deducted that Time as a cosmological value is a purely abstract concept that exists only in our minds and perceptions.
The standard cosmological model of the Universe today is this tube-shaped Universe that begins from the “Big Bang” point and expands like a cone forward into the future that is towards where we are today. This model is not correct for it presents the Universe in a misconceived way.
Since the sphere is the universal shape that assembles naturally in a high-pressure environment, the Universe in all its multidimensional nature must be a spherical object, considering that it exists in a quantum Singularity environment that exerts an enormous amount of pressure on it. Also, if the Universe was initially the size of an atom and then it grew to a grapefruit-size it couldn’t have been a flat atom or a flat grapefruit, could it?
Furthermore, as the spherical Universe expanded in volume it must have retained its chronological center of beginning. That is, space expanded in all sides away from where it began, however the central point of genesis remained there.
You can visualize the model of the Universe as a donut shape, but the central hole is so extremely narrow that it could be barely perceived at all. Who knows how weird the center of the Universe is and how twisted reality is there, because of the event horizon.
Regular matter evolved into stars and planets, while in the same time it was being constantly moved away from the central-point of Genesis and spaced apart by accumulation of dark matter space that expanded the cosmos. So that is why, as the first stars and galaxies formed the Universe was much, much smaller than it is today and these primal stars and galaxies are observed far away from where we are. Further yet, in the closer distance we observe younger galaxies and stars being born. We are located at the outer most layer of the Universal expansion and this is the reason why we cannot peer into the future Universe just as we can peer into the past. Because this future Universe is simply not there yet.
Imagine an onion with a couple of thick layers. Starting from the most inner one at its center, around which are wrapped all the other consecutive layers. These are the chronological layers of the Universe that reflect stellar evolution. The reason I refer to this structure as “chronological layers” is that this term describes it best to the imagination, not because I include time as anything real. There is no time particle!
Of course, if you exclude the time-concept things simply seize to make sense at all. As we pointed out earlier. Namely, things seize to make sense for the human mind!
It is hard to imagine, if there is no time as a past-present-future realities, then how can the whole Universe exist only in the Present? What about these observations of distant stellar objects ten billion years away? Well, we see their informational imprint carried by photons that Hubble captures and assembles into a photograph. However, these photons have traveled say 15 billion years, which means that we do not see what is there in real-time, but what was there in the early ages of the Universe. These objects we observe from the “distant past” may be as well long gone by real-time today. In fact, when we peer into the distant past we actually peer towards the chronological center of the Universe, its point of genesis.
In reality, there is no “time” in the cosmos and the whole Universe exists at the same time everywhere in every present moment. Time is a value that the moving observer considers relative to his speed and distance traveled from start to end point.
[To be continued..]